Clarifying tetrapod embryogenesis, a physicist’s point of view



  1. Introduction
  2. The invertebrate morphogenesis.
    1. The fly bauplan
    2. The homeobox genes
  3. The genetics of vertebrate development
    1. The homeobox genes in vertebrates
    2. Limb patterning in tetrapods
    3. The limb field
  4. The paleontological point of view
    1. Tetrapod origin
    2. About pentadactily
    3. Fold extension
    4. Limb extension
    5. Limb flexion
  5. Developmental description of the formation of the vertebrate bauplan
    1. Description of gastrulation motions
    2. Brief summary of cell movements during tetrapod formation
    3. Deformation and cell movements during tetrapod formation
    4. Significance of the hyperbolic point
  6. Simple mathematical integration of movements of interacting cells
    1. The cell traction field
    2. Examples of typical flows generated by cell configurations
  7. Application to embryo morphogenesis
    1. Simplification of generic embryo movements
    2. Coupling chemical gradients, mechanotransduction, and hydrodynamics
    3. Significance of the closure of the primitive streak
    4. Discussion of he biomechanical origin of limbs
  8. About segmentation
  9. Consequences for evolution of the craniates
  10. Conclusion



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